The CEO of hospitality business Whitbread will take over from interim chairman Peter McCormick early next year.
“I have been a football fan since I was a child and so am absolutely delighted to be appointed chair of the Premier League,” she said in a statement.
“The game is of enormous national importance, is loved by so many people around the world and can have a tremendous positive impact on communities.
“It will be a real privilege to be able to help to develop plans for the future and work with all the key stakeholders in the game to ensure its long-term sustainability and success.”
Premier League chief executive Richard Masters welcomed the appointment of Brittain.
“She has a tremendous track record in business, gets things done with a down-to-earth style and is well-respected and liked in all the industries she has worked,” he said.
“She also has a keen interest in the game and how it can develop further and I am very much looking forward to working with her.”